IX. Reference Notes

 1. Church of Scientology, A Description of the Scientology Religion (Los Angeles: Church of Scientology International, 1993): 2.

 2. E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, 2 vols. (London, John Murray, 1920): I:424; Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, trans. Joseph Ward Swain (New York: The Free Press, 1965): 62. A useful multi-dimensional “map” for the study of religion has been developed by Ninian Smart in a number of publications, including The Religious Experience of Mankind (Glasgow: Collins, 1971); The Science of Religion and the Sociology of Knowledge (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973); The Phenomenon of Religion (London: Macmillan, 1973); and Worldviews: Crosscultural Explorations of Human Beliefs (New York: Charles Scribners, 1983). For further discussion of defining religion, see David Chidester, Gordon Mitchell, Isabel Apawo Phiri, and A. Rashied Omar, Religion in Public Education: Options for a New South Africa, 2nd edn. (Cape Town, UCT Press, 1994).

 3. Emile Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (trans.) Elizabeth Palmer (London: Faber and Faber, 1973; orig. edn. 1969): 522.

 4. J. T. van der Kemp, “An Account of the Religion, Customs, Population, Government, Language, History, and Natural Productions of Caffraria,” Transactions of the {London} Missionary Society, Vol. 1 (London: Bye & Law, 1804): 432.

 5. W. M. Eiselen, “Geloofsvorme van Donker Afrika,” Tydskrif vir Wetenskap en Kuns 3 (1924/25): 84.

 6. Peter Harrison, ‘Religion’ and the Religions in the English Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990): 39.

 7. David A. Pailin, Attitudes to Other Religions: Comparative Religion in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984).

 8. F. Max Müller, Introduction to the Science of Religion (London: Trübners, 1873).

 9. In addition to the work of Harrison and Pailin cited above, recent accounts of the historical emergence of the modern terms “religion” and “religions” have also been provided by Peter Byrne, Natural Religion and the Nature of Religion: The Legacy of Deism (London: Routledge, 1989); J. Samuel Preus, Explaining Religion: Criticism and Theory from Bodin to Freud (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987); Eric J. Sharpe, Comparative Religion: A History, 2nd edn. (La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1986); and Michel Despland and Gerard Vallée (eds.) Religion in History: The Word, the Idea, the Reality (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1992). For deep background, see Wilfred Cantwell Smith, The Meaning and End of Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1962): Michel Despland, La religion en Occident: Evolution des idées et du vécu (Montreal: Fides, 1979); and Ernst Feil, Religion: Die Geschichte eines neuzeitlichen Grundbegriffs vom Frühchristentum bis zur Reformation (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1986). For an analysis of the historical production of the terms “religion” and “religions” in southern Africa, see David Chidester, Savage Systems: Colonialism, Religion, and Comparative Religion in Southern Africa (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, forthcoming 1996).

 10. On the anti-cult movement, see David Bromley and Anson D. Shupe, The New Vigilantes: Deprogrammers, Anti-Cultists, and the New Religions (Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1980). In academic analysis, anti-cult claims can reappear in theoretical models that depict new religions as psychopathology, entrepreneurial enterprises, or social deviance. See William Sims Bainbridge and Rodney Stark, “Cult Formation: Three Compatible Models,” in Jeffrey K. Hadden and Theodore E. Long, eds., Religion and Religiosity in America (New York: Crossroad, 1983): 35–53.

 11. G. P. C. Kotzé, et al., Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Scientology for 1972 (Pretoria: Government Printer, 1973): 208.

 12. G. C. Oosthuizen, The Church of Scientology: Religious Philosophy, Religion, and Church (Johannesburg: Church of Scientology, 1975): 11.

 13. L. Ron Hubbard, The Creation of Human Ability: A Handbook for Scientologists, 351.

 14. For an example of this approach, see Hendrik Kraemer, The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World (London: Edinburgh House Press, 1938).

 15. L. Ron Hubbard, Phoenix Lectures (Edinburgh: Publications Organization World Wide, 1968): 35.

 16. Ibid., 13.

 17. Ibid., 11.

 18. L. Ron Hubbard, Science of Survival: Prediction of Human Behavior, 488.

 19. L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology 0–8: The Book of Basics, 410.

 20. L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology 8-8008, 121.

 21. Hubbard, Ceremonies of the Founding Church of Scientology, 7.

 22. Jonathan Z. Smith, “Healing Cults,” New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, vol. 8 (Chicago, 1977): 685.

 23. Henry Clarke Warren, trans., Buddhism in Translations (New York: Atheneum, 1979): 405.

 24. Morton Bloomfield, The Seven Deadly Sins: An Introduction to the History of a Religious Concept (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1967).

 25. On dissonance and harmony in religious ethics, see David Chidester, Patterns of Action: Religion and Ethics in a Comparative Perspective (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1987): 67–105.

 26. Hubbard, Science of Survival, 46.

 27. Mircea Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, trans. Willard R. Trask (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964).

 28. Felicitas Goodman, Ecstasy, Ritual, and Alternative Reality: Religion in a Pluralistic World (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988); Where the Spirits Ride the Wind: Trance journeys and other Ecstatic Experiences (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990).

 29. For analysis that has discredited the claim that new religions engage in “brainwashing,” see David Bromley and James Richardson, eds., The Brainwashing/Deprogramming Controversy: Sociological, Psychological, Legal, and Historical Perspectives (New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1983); and Dick Anthony, “Religious Movements and Brainwashing Litigation: Evaluating Key Testimony,” in Thomas Robbins and Dick Anthony, eds., In Gods We Trust: New Patterns of Religious Pluralism in America, 2nd edn. (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction, 1990): 295–325.

 30. Church of Scientology, What Is Scientology?: The Comprehensive Reference on the World’s Fastest Growing Religion (Los Angeles: Bridge Publications): 245.

 31. Ibid., 274.

 32. Church of Scientology, Description of the Scientology Religion, 8.

 33. David Chidester, Patterns of Power: Religion and Politics in American Culture (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1988): 239–41.

 34. Kotzé, Report of the Commission of Inquiry, 209.

 35. Church of Scientology, Reply to the Report of the Commission of Inquiry: “The Missing Report” for the Information of Members of Parliament (Johannesburg: Church of Scientology, 1973): 41.

 36. Cited in Ibid., 43.

 37. Church of Scientology, What Is Scientology?, 527.

 38. Church of Scientology, Reference Guide to the Scientology Religion: Answers to Questions Most Commonly Asked by Media (Los Angeles: Church of Scientology International, 1994): 22.

 39. Citizens Commission on Human Rights, “Psychiatry and South Africa,” Creating Racism: Psychiatry’s Betrayal in the Guise of Help (Los Angeles, CCHR, 1995): 18.

 40. Klippies Kritzinger, ed., Believers in the Future (Cape Town: World Conference on Religion and Peace, South African Chapter, 1991).

 41. William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (New York: Macmillan, 1961): 393.

 42. Roy Wallis, “Hostages to Fortune: Thoughts on the Future of Scientology and the Children of God,” in David G. Bromley and Phillip E. Hammond, eds., The Future of New Religious Movements (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1987): 80–84; Robert Ellwood, “A Historian of Religion Looks at the Future of New Religious Movements,” in ibid., 249–50; Benton Johnson, “A Sociologist of Religion Looks at the Future of New Religious Movements,” in ibid., 253–56.